Hydrocotyle verticillata

Whorled pennywort

Aquarium suitability: yes
Usage: Midground, Foreground, group
Difficulty: medium
Growth: fast
See also: Hydrocotyle vulgaris

Common names: 
  • Whorled pennywort
  • Whorled Marsh-pennywort
  • Shield pennywort

Habit, plant type:

  • rhizome or creeping stem
Botanical name [?]: Hydrocótyle verticilláta Thunb.

Major group (unranked): Seed plants: Flowering plants (Angiosperms)
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Hydrocotyle


In the warmer regions of the Americas, Hydrocotyle verticillata is quite a common plant. It prefers very moist soils and also grows in shallow water. It differs from the more wide-spread H. leucocephala by the form of its leaves that are formed like a tiny parasol and have no slot.

Cultivating H. verticillata in an aquarium is not really difficult. One of the most important factors is light, as its height depends on light intensity. The more intense, the smaller the plant will stay. Apart from that, its demands regarding nutrients and CO2 supply are quite easy to meet. A balanced supply of nutrients and CO2 injection are beneficial to the plant's growth, though. However, if abundant nutrients are added, unfortunately the dwarfism so many hobbyists covet in this plant will disappear and it will grow much larger leaves.

A striking difference to H. leucocephala is the submersed growth habit of H. verticillata. Its creeping runners grow along the substrate, forming a dense carpet. Use a sharp pair of scissors for foreground layout and maintenance and for trimming the plant or its runners.

Its unique growth habit of the leaves that remind of little parasols or mushrooms, and its low height make H. verticillata an ideal foreground plant. In larger aquaria, it may even be used as only foreground plant, in smaller tanks it lends itself to accentuation.

References and further reading:
  1. follows
Light medium to high 
Temperature tolerance 4 to 27 °C
Optimum temperature 18 to 25 °C
Carbonate hardness 0 to 15 °dKH
pH value 5 to 7.5 
Carbon dioxide (CO2) 10 to 40 mg/l
Nitrate (NO3-) 10 to 50 mg/l
Phosphate (PO43-) 0.1 to 3 mg/l
Potassium (K+) 5 to 30 mg/l
Iron (Fe) 0.01 to 0.5 mg/l

Growth: fast

Propagation: Runners, Cuttings, Splitting, cutting off daughter plants

Can grow emersed?: yes

Suited for outdoor cultivation / ponds: yes

Winter hardiness: hardy in Germany

References and further reading:
  1. follows
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References and further reading:
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TODO Hydrocotyle verticillata is also known as Whorled pennywort, Whorled Marsh-pennywort and Shield pennywort. TODO

Wasserpflanzen sind ein fester Bestandteil der meisten Aquarien. Beim Aquascaping, dem Naturaquarium, Biotop-Aquarium oder dem Gesellschaftsaquarium sind Wasserpflanzen nicht nur für die Wasserqualität entscheidend, sondern sorgen auch stets für eine optische Aufwertung des Aquariums.